Italian Unification

            Mazzini launches “Young Italy”
                                               -focuses on middle class
                                               -ignores peasantry/land reform
                                               -disbanded in 1836
“Young Italy” has inspired thoughts on Italian Unification

                        -But should it be under the Pope or Piedmont-Sardinia?

            The very conservative Pius IX becomes Pope

            Mazzini declares the Roman Republic
            -Pius IX appeals to France, Austria, and Spain for help
            -Garibaldi defends Rome
                                    -He is defeated in July 1849 by Radetzky

            King Charles Albert of Piedmont grants the Statuto (constitution) as a concession to the             liberals.

            -23 March –War is declared with Austria

            Charles Albert is defeated at Custoza

            Charles Albert reenters the war and is defeated at Novara
            -He abdicates in favour of Victor Emmanuel

            Camillo di Cavour becomes Prime Minister

            Emperor Franz-Josef of Austria receives a tip-off from Cavour and crushes Mazzini’s followers at Lombardy


            Piedmont sides with Britain and France in the Crimean War in order to gain favourable connections (particularly with France).

            Napoléon III declares his support of Piedmont…In hopes of it becoming a French                         satellite!

            July            Treaty of Plombières            (Not formalized until January 1859)
                        -The Princess of Piedmont will marry Napoléon III’s nephew
                        -France will fight with Italy against Austria in a defensive battle
                        -If Italy wins, France gets Nice and Savoy

            Venetians and Lombardians are forcibly drafted into the Habsburg Army
             Cavour orders mobilization of Piedmont’s army and will protect anyone
             fleeing for forced conscription in the Habsburg Army.
                    -Prussia wants to back Austria
                    -British Ambassador to France demands peace
                21 April
            Napoléon III asks Piedmont-Sardinia to demobilize troops     
            23 April
            Austria declares war on Piedmont

            Napoléon III prepares to rescue Piedmont-Sardinia
                -Bismarck says Prussia needn’t help Austria because Austria is the

            23-24 June              Battle of Solferino
            Austria is driven out of Lombardy
                This is seen as French expansionism and the defeat of Austria brings the German                     States into the conflict.


July               Armistice of Villafranca
                              -cease-fire in which Austria retains Venetia
            -Cavour is upset with the French and wants Victor Emmanuel to keep on fighting.
                        -The lesson of 1848 was that force is necessary so Victor Emmanuel refuses.
            -Cavour resigns.
            -Nationalists in Central Italy vote to unify under Piedmont
                        -Victor Emmanuel waits because he doesn’t want to upset Napoléon III

            Cavour returns

            Nice and Savoy are under French control and Piedmont Sardinia expands
                in Central Italy

               Treaty of Turin
    -France can keep Nice and Savoy
    -France occupies Rome
    -Piedmont Sardinia gets: Lombardy, Tuscany, Parma, etc
    -Austria still keeps Venetia
    French annexation makes the British fear French expansionism again
            2-5 April
                Garibaldi invades Sicily
            -Francis II’s 25,000 troops crush the revolt
                 Garibaldi retreats to Naples and includes peasants in the revolt by advocating land                 reform

           4 May
           Cavour fails to stop Garibaldi with Piedmontese ships and decides to manipulate him             (pretend he doesn’t exist unless he wins, then claim his victory)

           7 September
           Garibaldi has taken Naples
           -He prepares to march on Rome

         26 October
        Cavour has Victor Emmanuel lead the Army into Rome so Garibaldi gives
        the King his conquests rather than fighting him.

            Italy signs a secret treaty with Prussia (this is during the Bruderkrieg)
                        -If Prussia goes to war with Austria and win with Italian aid, Italy
                                will get Venetia

            Garibaldi tries to conquer Rome but gets stopped because Italy does not
                want to upset France (Don’t forget, this is the second time he’s tried to get Rome, the             first time was in 1862.)

            Franco-Prussian war causes the French to pull their troops from Rome and the                     Italians occupy.
            -This upsets the Pope
            -Plebiscite in Rome votes to be part of Italy
            -Rome becomes the Capital.