"Status Quo" -Power Balance Politics in the 19th Century

Key 19th Century Events which followed the Metternich System

            10 April
            English Foreign Ministry advises Prussia not to invade Denmark as this would be breaking the Vienna System
            11 April
            Russia is concerned about Prussian control of Schleswig-Holstein.
            Schwarzenburg (Chief Austrian Minister) dislikes the increase of Prussian strength. He is concerned that Frederick William IV will become German Kaiser.
            France sends in troops to Piedmont to defeat Garibaldi at Rome to protect the pope
            Treaty of London: Denmark has authority over Schleswig and Holstein, but cannot absorb them.

           19 April
           British Ambassador asks France to step down.
            26 June
            France seems able to crush Austria after Solferino. (This causes concern and Prussia mobilizes for defense.)

            Napoléon III states his position against German Unification.

            Napoléon III’s “Doctrine of Nationalities” is not supported by England.
            3 May
            Thiers is against German Unification because it challenges France’s status as Continental Superpower.

Key 19th Century Events which did not

            Frederic VII of Denmark claims Schleswig-Holstein
27 October
            Resolutions of Frankfurt Assembly
            -Germanic States will join into Prussia
            Cavour writes in his diary that we will do anything to unify the Italian peninsula.
            Cavour decides that he must get external help to get rid of the Austrian presence in Northern Italy.
            Crimean War

            Napoléon III wants to increase French influence in the Italian peninsula
            Bismarck believes that a war between Austria and France will weaken the two and help Prussia later.
            24 March
            France annexes Nice and Savoy
            Bismarck states his frustration with the Metternich System, saying it was made to keep Prussia inferior to Austria.

            The new King of Denmark Christian IX claims Schleswig-Holstein. (Bismarck wants to expand Prussia into Holstein.)
             Italy is completely unified with the acquisition of Venetia.

Key 19th Century Alliances

1872     League of Three Emperors
            Part of Bismarck's foreign policy goal of isolating France, this was a rightist League of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia against liberalism. It fell apart after 1878 Congress of Berlin in which Russia was forced to give back conquered territory in the Ottoman Empire from the 1877-1878 Russian-Turkish war.

1879 Austro-German Treaty
            Moltke wants to attack Russia
            -Bismarck disagrees (Why get more races into Germany when it is obvious what that did to the Habsburg Empire? Also, he doesn't want to make Russia into a sworn enemy like France.)
1879     Dual Alliance
            Austria-Hungary and Imperial Germany
            If Russia attacks Austria-Hungary, Germany will declare war on Russia
            If France attacks Germany, Austria-Hungary will declare war on France
            If Austria-Hungary attacks Russia, Germany will stay neutral
            If Germany attacks France, Austria-Hungary will stay neutral

1881     2nd League of Three Emperors (renewed in 1884)

1882     Triple Alliance
            Italy becomes a third party in the Dual Alliance.

1887 Reinsurance Treaty
            Bismarck's effort at keeping diplomatic relations with Russia
            +Salisbury declines the offer of an Anglo-German alliance

            England again rejects the offer of an Anglo-German alliance

            William II fails to renew the Reinsurance Treaty
1891            Franco-Russian Entente
            France and Russia will give each other support for any territorial conflict with the UK.

1894            Franco-Russian Dual Alliance
            If Germany attacks Russia or France, the non-attacked country will mobilize its troops on the border. If any member of the Triple Alliance mobilizes, so will France and Russia.